Please ensure that your abstract summarises your entire contribution in one paragraph (maximum of 500 words).
Do not use section headings, but ensure that the content is structured.
Diagrams, illustrations, tables, references and graphics are NOT permitted for the abstract.
Qualities of a good abstract embodies the following structure:
- Uses an introduction-body-conclusion structure in which the parts of the report are discussed in order: purpose, research questions, methods, findings, conclusions, recommendations.
- Can be understood without reading the paper.
- Provides a condensed and concentrated version of the full paper.
- Does not contain citations.
- Does not contain lengthy background information.
- Should contain actual research results and should not be a study/research protocol only.
- Focus on the relevance, novelty and contribution to the field that the research is reporting.
These sections should briefly describe the objectives of the study or investigation, the basic procedures (study subjects and analytical methods), the main findings (giving specific data and the statistical significance, if possible), and the principal conclusion.